470 HISTORY OF PERSIA the boundaries of Persia remained practically unchanged during the last century. In 1843 a Mixed Commission, including representatives of Great Britain and Russia, was appointed to adjudicate upon the Perso-Turkish boundary, which, owing to the population of shifting nomads and the hilly nature of the country, was a complicated matter to setde. This Commission led in 1847 to the Treaty of Erzeroum, by the terms of which each of the neighbouring powers abandoned some territory to which it laid claim and agreed to appoint commissioners to define the frontier. The new Commission met in 1849, I^5°? anc^ ^fi at Mohamera and Baghdad, but without arriving at any de- finite result. In 1851 Lord Palmerston suggested that the general line of frontier should be traced at Constantin- ople, in conformity with the Treaty of Erzeroum, by the agents of Persia and Turkey, with the assistance of the commissioners, doubtful localities being left for future settlement. This suggestion was agreed to, and survey operations were conducted during a period of eight years (from 1857 to 1865)5 as the result of which a map was made of the country between Ararat and the Persian Gulf, a tract seven hundred miles long and from twenty to forty miles wide. The Porte was then informed that " in the opinion of the mediating powers the future line of boundary between the dominions of the Sultan and the Shah was to be found within the limits traced on the map, and that the two Mohamedan Governments should themselves mark out the'line, and that in the event of any differences between them in regard to any particular locality, the points in dispute should be referred to the decision of the Governments of England and Russia." In 1907 Turkey, taking advantage of Persian internal troubles, occupied not only "doubtful localities," but also what was without question Persian territory. Some years later, however, a Mixed Commission was once again constituted, and in October 1914, a day before the outbreak of hostilities between Russia and Turkey, the last boundary pillar erected at the foot of Mount Ararat completed the demarcation of the Turko-Persian frontier.